Periodontal (around the tooth) – tissues surrounding the tooth: bone, ligaments holding the tooth in the alveolar bone and gums.
The tooth is not tightly accreted to the bone. It hangs in the alveolar bone, supported by ligaments. Periodontal ligaments are shock absorbers which soften the impact of mastication. When infection damages the supporting apparatus of the tooth, it becomes unable to withstand the load and starts to loosen. Loss of tooth is the worst-case scenario.
Gum diseases are provoked by plaque – a layer of food particles, peeled off cells and bacteria. It constantly forms and accumulates on teeth, at the edge of gums and gingival sulcus. If the plaque is not removed correctly during daily brushing of teeth, it can accumulate not just on teeth, in a place visible to us, but also beneath gums where it tends to harden and become the tartar. It causes inflammation of gums (gingivitis). If untreated, gingivitis progresses into a more severe form of the disease – periodontitis (periodontal inflammation).
Periodontitis – a long-term, irreversible lesion of gums and bone tissue, which support the teeth in the jawbone. It is also called paradontosis. If a person has periodontitis, bone resorption around tooth begins. A pocket forms around the tooth. Gum pocket – a cavity going along the surface of the root of the tooth towards its apex. Plaque accumulates in the pocket, as well as inflammation causing and supporting microorganisms, externally unnoticeable and therefore dangerous tartar begins to form. Healthy periodontal tissue is replaced by inflamed tissue. Sometimes purulence occurs in the gum pocket. At the later stage of the disease, due to the constant inflammation process, after bone resorption around teeth, they start loosening. The worst prognosis – removal of teeth. It is crucial not to give in to diseases, if the slightest suspicion occurs, one should go to consult periodontologist on time.
A SCHEME OF DEVELOPMENT OF PERIODONTITIS:
A PERSON SHOULD BE CONCERNED WHEN:
- Gums get sensitive, swollen, red;
- Gums bleed when brushing teeth and flossing;
- Bad breath occurs;
- Teeth become sensitive to hot, cold and sour food;
- Gums recede, roots of get exposed (teeth look visually longer);
- Gaps between teeth occur;
- A position of teeth changes;
- Teeth begin to loosen.
PERIODONTITIS TREATMENT METHODS
Non-surgical – removal of tartar and soft plaque from teeth and polishing of dental roots (professional oral hygiene). If your teeth are very sensitive, the procedure will be performed with complete local anesthesia. After this stage, bleeding of gums, burning sensation and itching may disappear entirely. The dental surface becomes even, smooth and repels plaque more effectively. The mobility of some tooth gets reduced.
Surgical – necessary if the periodontal pockets reach 5-6 mm. The procedure is painless, performed with the application of local anesthetics. Tartar located deep beneath the gums and inflamed tissues are removed. By use of the most advanced, scientific research-based methods, a part of lost bone tissue is restored. Special bone granules and platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) are used for that purpose.
Supportive – necessary to avoid the recurrence of the disease in the future. It’s teamwork of the patient, oral hygienist, and periodontologist. If the plaque is again accumulating on dental surfaces, it means the disease is recrudescent. If the patient gets the disease repeatedly, it usually develops fast and is harder to treat. If at the beginning of treatment deep pockets and acute gum inflammation were detected, contraction of the gums after procedures is inevitable. The gums recede and uncover a part of the sensitive surface of the root. It’s critical to understand that periodontological treatment is a general attempt to save your teeth from inevitable removal, so aesthetics should be of secondary importance.
STAGES OF SUPPORTIVE TREATMENT:
- For the patient is it critically important to brush his teeth thoroughly and qualitatively;
- To perform professional oral hygiene periodically to prevent the formation of tartar;
- Use of means to reduce the sensitivity of teeth (applications at dentist’s office, desensitizing creams and pastes at home);
- Fortification of mobile frontal teeth with glass fiber post (significantly prolongs the functioning time of the teeth);
- Good oral bacteria preparations (use of probiotics). Clinical studies have shown that the use of Lactobacillus reuteri preparations significantly improves the results of tartar removal from above and beneath the teeth. Professional oral hygiene results last longer.